Disparities In Prevalence Of Major Cancer Risk Factors And Screening Test Use In The U.S.
According to the April 2019 issue of the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, individuals with lower educational attainment have higher prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors and lower prevalence of screening versus their more educated counterparts. Smoking prevalence is six times higher among males without a high school education than female college graduates. Nearly half of women without a college degree are obese versus about one-third of college graduates. Over 50% of black and Hispanic women are obese compared with 38% of whites and 15% of Asians. Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening utilization is 20% to 30% lower among those with less than high school education compared with college graduates. Screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers also is lower among Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians/Alaska Natives relative to whites and blacks.
Foreign-Body Ingestions Of Young Children Treated In U.S. Emergency Departments: 1995–2015
The number of children in the United States who swallowed coins, toys, and other small objects nearly doubled (91.5% from 9.5 per 10,000 children in 1995 to 18 in 2015), according to an article published on April 10, 2019 in the journal Pediatrics. Some objects can cause serious harm when ingested, and possibly even death. Overall, boys more frequently ingested foreign bodies (52.9%), as did children one year of age (21.3%). Most children were able to be discharged after their suspected ingestion (89.7%). Among the types of objects ingested, coins were the most frequent (61.7%), toys (10.3%), jewelry (7.0%), and batteries (6.8%) followed thereafter. The rates of ingestion of those products also increased significantly over the 21-year period. Across all age groups, the most frequently ingested coin was a penny (65.9%). Button batteries were the most common kind of batteries ingested (85.9%). Small and flat objects, they can damage or even puncture the walls of the esophagus if they become stuck.
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY CORNER
Morning Exercise Is Better Than Evening Exercise Except When It Is Not
Exercise is considered an effective lifestyle intervention for the prevention and mitigation of various diseases. One group of researchers investigated whether the time of day and circadian clock affect exercise performance and related metabolic pathways in mice and humans. They found that exercise performance is better in the evening than in the morning hours, thereby potentially optimizing health benefits. Meanwhile, a different set of investigators observed a more robust metabolic impact of exercise in the morning (beginning of active phase) than at night (beginning of rest phase), resulting in a higher utilization of carbohydrates and ketone bodies, together with the degradation of lipids and amino acids. Both studies were published April 18, 2019 in the journal Cell Metabolism. While the results may not lead to firm conclusions pertaining to humans, they possibly could have implications for any mice that have an opportunity to exercise regularly on treadmills, which relates to how the research was conducted.
Using Voice Analysis To Evaluate And Predict Human Behaviors And Identify Health Risks
An Israeli company called VoiceSense is taking advantage of the plethora of devices that capture human speech, such as mobile phones and digital assistants in homes. Voice-analysis research is capturing individual tones, speed, emphases, and pauses, and applying machine learning to make predictions. Feeding the data to an algorithm, over time it learns to pick up subtle speaking signs that might indicate someone who experiences anxiety. Mental and behavioral health issues often prove to be difficult to monitor effectively. For example, signs and symptoms can creep up on individuals who experience depression before they realize that they might need help. Although using voice to identify anxiety, depression, and specific conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) still is in the early stages, researchers aim to produce a sensor that can monitor and alert a patient to such problems in order to facilitate earlier intervention.
More Articles from TRENDS April 2019
VARIETIES OF PLAGUES BOTH OLD AND NEW
Examples are provided of infectious diseases as well as another kind of plague resulting from doubts and uncertainties about purported advantages of contemporary life. Read More
PRESIDENT’S CORNER—ASAHP MEMBER FOCUS
Yasmen Simonian, Dean and Brady Distinguished Professor at Weber State University, is featured in this issue of TRENDS. Read More
100TH DAY OF THE 116TH CONGRESS
A summary of important accomplishments during the first 100 days of the 116th Congress is described. Read More
HEALTH REFORM DEVELOPMENTS
Discusses: the Medicare For All Act Of 2019, provision of non-medical services for social needs that affect health, and reaction in the House of Representatives to a lawsuit to invalidate the Affordable Care Act. Read More
DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Describes: an upcoming ASAHP Summit on Interprofessional Education; Congressional testimony by U.S. Department of Education Secretary Betsy Devos on education policies and priorities; and released draft consensus language from negotiated rulemaking sessions on accreditation and other topics. Read More
AVAILABLE RESOURCES ACCESSIBLE ELECTRONICALLY
Hospitals’ Use Of Electronic Health Records Data, 2015-2017
Strengthening The Connection Between Health Professions Education And Practice Read More
PER SCIENTIAM AD SAPIENTIAM: SOME KEY STEPS IN THE JOURNEY
Furnishes examples from the professional literature that serve as stepping stones on the road from knowledge to wisdom. Read More
PLACING A MAN ON THE MOON AND SOME RELATED MUSINGS
Refers to health hazards associated with lengthy periods of time in outer space and implications for improving health status on earth’s inhabitants. Read More